Rf igm rheumatoid arthritis 1987

Given the ability of RFs to increase the clearance of immune complexes and the fact that RF-producing B cells may behave as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and aid the immune response against the infectious antigens, it is likely that the net impact of RF production during infections is protective for the host [24, 26].First detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 70 years ago, they can also be found in patients with other autoimmune and nonautoimmune conditions, as well as in healthy subjects.However, although they owe their name to their first detection in RA patients, RFs are found in patients with other autoimmune and nonautoimmune diseases, as well as-in healthy subjects.The aim of this review is to describe the clinical applications of testing for RFs.RFs can also interfere with other laboratory tests, including those designed to detect anticardiolipin antibodies (especially if Ig M levels are in the low positive range) [16], anti-β2GPI antibodies [17], anti-HCV antibodies [18], antirubella antibodies [19], thyroid assays [20, 21], and tests for carbohydrate antigen 19–9 [22] and various cytokines [23].Furthermore, different rheumatoid factor isotypes alone or in combination can be helpful when managing rheumatoid arthritis patients, from the time of diagnosis until deciding on the choice of therapeutic strategy.Rheumatoid factors (RFs), a class of immunoglobulins (Igs) that have different isotypes and affinities, were first detected more than 70 years ago, but there is still much to discover about the mechanisms underlying their production, physiological role, and pathological effects [1].This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Internal Medicine Section, IRCCS, Ca’ Granda Policlinico, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplation, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy Received 25 June 2013; Revised 10 September 2013; Accepted 1 October 2013Academic Editor: Irene Rebelo Copyright © 2013 Francesca Ingegnoli et al.In clinical practice, it is recommended to measure anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factors together because anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies alone are only moderately sensitive, and the combination of the two markers improves diagnostic accuracy, especially in the case of early rheumatoid arthritis.In 1948, Rose described these antibodies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [3], and in 1952 they were finally christened RFs because of their association with RA [4].Rheumatoid factors form part of the workup for the differential diagnosis of arthropathies.The first RF detection assay was based on the fact that RF agglutinates sheep red blood cells sensitised with rabbit Ig Gs (i.e., the classic Waaler-Rose test) [2, 3], and this was followed by the development of other Ig G carriers such as bentonite [5, 6] and latex particles [7, 8].Automated techniques such as nephelometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays gradually replaced the other semiquantitative methods because of their simplicity and greater reproducibility [9–12].

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